Galenic preparations – a group of medicines obtained from plant raw materials by settling and filtering, which are part of medicines. They are not chemically individual preparations, but are a complex of substances of complex composition. Extracts containing a complex of substances often act somewhat differently than an individual chemically pure substance isolated from it. Therefore, the therapeutic effect of galenic preparations is due to the entire complex of biologically active substances in them, enhancing, weakening or modifying the effect of the basic substances.

General information
Medicinal products based on medicinal plants are mainly obtained by extraction. According to the technology of obtaining them, they are divided into:
1) galenic preparations
2) novogalenic drugs

Galenic preparations – a group of medicines obtained from plant raw materials by settling and filtering, which are part of medicines. They are not chemically individual preparations, but are a complex of substances of complex composition. Extracts containing a complex of substances often act somewhat differently than an individual chemically pure substance isolated from it. Therefore, the therapeutic effect of galenic preparations is due to the entire complex of biologically active substances in them, enhancing, weakening or modifying the effect of the basic substances.

Neogalene drugs – medicinal substances assigned from plant materials and maximally purified from associated substances. Compared to galenic preparations, they have a narrower spectrum of action, do not have side effects of associated substances (resins, tannins) and can be used for injection.
According to the consistency, drugs obtained on the basis of medicines can be classified into dry and liquid; depending on the used extractant, for alcohol extracts, oil extracts, ether extracts, extracts obtained using liquefied gases, extracts-concentrates.

The production of these drugs is based on extraction processes; distinguish between extraction in the system “solid-liquid”, “liquid-liquid” and selective extraction.

The most widely used method in industry is the “solid-liquid” extraction method, where medicinal plants or substances of animal origin are used as a solid. As extractants in terms of availability, safety and effectiveness, water and alcohol are in the first place in terms of frequency of use.

Also, in some cases, the use of chloroform, methanol, vegetable oils and liquefied gases is acceptable.
Production technology
Tinctures are liquid extracts based on alcohol, water or oils, obtained without heating and removing the extractant. Dried or fresh crushed medicinal plants are used as raw materials.

Currently, the following methods of preparing tinctures are known:
1) Maceration
2) Percolation
3) Dissolution of dry (thick) extracts

Maceration (steeping), a method that was previously widely used in pharmaceuticals, is currently losing its popularity due to the insufficient extraction of drugs from plant material. The method consists in the following: crushed raw materials with a prescribed amount of extractant are loaded into a maceration tank, a maceration tank and infused at a temperature of 15-20 ° C, stirring occasionally. If the terms are not specifically stipulated, then the infusion is carried out within 7 days.

After infusion, the extract is drained, the residue is wrung out, the wrung out extract is washed with a small amount of extractant, squeezed out again, the squeezed extract is added to the drained extract initially, after which the combined extract is brought to the required volume with the extractant. Due to the low efficiency of this method, its more intensive modifications are used: fractional maceration, maceration with forced circulation, vortex turbine extraction, ultrasonic treatment, pressing, grinding). Percolation – filtering the extractant through the plant material in order to extract substances soluble in the extractant, produced in cylindrical metal containers – extractors. The design of the percolators varies depending on the technology used to obtain the final product. At the bottom of the extractor there is a perforated metal membrane with filter material.

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